篇名:
2002年台灣養羊產業衛生管理之問卷調查與分析Health Management Survey of Taiwan Goat Industry in 2002
作者:
賴治民;許天來;徐珮娟;陳燕萍;蕭終融
中文摘要:
養羊產業雖為我國傳統重要畜牧業,雖然至今已有 33 篇報告討論台灣羊隻營養、代謝及疾病等問題,但對養羊戶之需求、養羊場經濟損失嚴重疾病及常見疾病等項目均不甚瞭解。本計畫探討對象為2000年山羊飼養戶普查報告中之養羊產銷班名冊共計 768 戶,利用郵寄方式進行調查,採匿名、封閉式問卷進行訪問。主題分為六部份:經濟損失最嚴重疾病、場內常見疾病、淘汰原因、疾病名稱認知、疫苗需求及現場獸醫服務來源。統計軟體採用美國疾病管制局發展之 Epiinfo 2000、微軟公司之 Excel 2000 及 SPSS 6.0。統計方法以無母數分析為主,包含Friedman序位檢定及符號檢定等。除 24 份因地址不明外,回收 80 份問卷,分別來自 11 個縣及其縣轄市,佔養羊資料戶之 11%。發現經濟損失最嚴重的疾病為下痢及乳房疾病;場內常見疾病為下痢及關節炎;疾病認知度最高者為流行性感冒、山羊關節炎腦炎;淘汰原因最多為乳房炎;疫苗需求最殷切且最可能為家衛所協助者為傳染性化膿性皮膚炎病毒疫苗。有獸醫師協助場為 41 戶,約佔 50%,其中又以政府單位獸醫服務為最多,有 23 戶。由問卷可知,農民對疾病的瞭解尚不夠透徹,仍需政府單位進一步宣導及教育;經濟損失如未達到不能忍受的狀況下,通常不會輕言淘汰病畜。在此狀況下,除造成傳染病的流竄,更造成農民對各類疫苗的需求度非常高。因此未來,我們將針對農民所關心疾病,進行更進一步流行病學的探討與比較。
英文摘要:
SUMMARY Goat livestock is a traditional husbandry in Taiwan. Even there are 33 published papers in Taiwan involving in goat diseases, nutrition, and metabolism, we don’t know what is the goat farmers need. We don’t know how many diseases that those farmers recognized and how many diseases have occurred on their farms. This survey was conducted by mail procedure. The Epiinfo 2000, SPSS 6.0, and Excel 2000 software including non-parameter tests, Friedman’s test, singed rank test and Chi-square test, were used to analyze the data. An anonymous and closed-structured questionnaire containing 6 topics was adopted. The 6 topics were: 1, Which diseases have caused the most severe economic losses on you farm; 2, Which disease is the most commonly occurred on your farm; 3, Do you know the name of zoonosis and common diseases; 4, What were reasons for you to cull the goats; 5, Which vaccine do you need and where do you reach the veterinary service. In this study, there were only 24 letters returned. A total of 80 signed questionnaires were collected and the return rate was 11% (80/744). Demographic data were from 11 counties. The severest economic consequences were diarrhea and arthritis. The most recognized diseases were influenza and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE). The main reasons for culling were mastitis and reproductive failure. The most wanted vaccines were CAE and rotavirus vaccines. There were 38 farms (49%) having one or more veterinary service. The names of diseases known by farmers were 5.5 in average, and the clinical signs of diseases were confused. Therefore, farmers need more help to differentiate the clinical signs. Farmers will not cull sick animals unless the infectious diseases spread easily. The demand of vaccines is also very high. In the future, we will do epidemiological surveys on the diseases that are the farmers most concern.
備註:
年份:西元 2002 年
期別:第 38 期
詳細內容:
養羊產業為我國傳統的畜牧產業之一,於2000年山羊飼養戶普查報告中指出,該年受訪問戶數為 2,219 戶,估計年底飼養戶數將達 2,500 戶,每戶平均在養頭數則為 112 頭,其平均產仔數為 94 頭。預估未來年在養頭數可能達到 459,989 頭,產值不容小覷[6]。 然而在疾病的研究上,台灣首度對羊隻進行研究並有報告始於1982 年,為沈永紹等人對山羊進行人工感染試驗,研究其免疫抑制現象 [12],至今,總計有 33 篇相關報告:研究營養及代謝者有 14 篇;研究寄生蟲者有 10 篇;於 1983 年者開始,蘇杰夫等人在羊隻分離到黴漿菌 (Mycoplasma tales) 菌株,開始台灣羊隻細菌性疾病的調查工作 [13];1987 年時,呂榮修等又於山羊結核菌素反應陽性山羊分離到假性結核棒狀桿菌(Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis) [10]。並於 1992 年時發表針對台灣羊隻進行結核病病原分離、鑑定及流行病學調查 [11]。山羊關節炎腦炎(Caprine arthritis-encephalitis; CAE)病毒及其一系列之研究則開始於 1993 年 [9]。目前在行政院農業委員會家畜衛生試驗所 (簡稱家衛所) 的非正式報告中,均指出山羊關節炎腦炎、山羊接觸性傳染性膿瘡 (Contagious ovine ecthyma; ORF)、山羊增殖性間質性肺炎 (Proliferative interstitial pneumonia),山羊結核病、破傷風、傳染性結膜炎,乳房炎,披衣菌造成之流死產症等均已為台灣常見之疾病。
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