篇名:
養殖魚類疾病之檢診服務及監測Practice service and surveillance of cultured fish diseases
作者:
黃淑敏;涂堅;程健智;郭舒亭;林上海;蕭終融
中文摘要:
利用病毒分離、PCR技術、API生化鑑定套組與16S rRNA基因選殖定序等技術進行台灣重要養殖魚類之病毒及細菌性疾病診斷與監測,從2004年1月份至12月份共收集820個病例,自病例資料來源分析顯示民間自送病例共計673例(佔82%);各縣市動物疾病防治所及機關學校病例共計51例(佔6.2%);輸出及輸入國檢疫病例共計57例(佔6.9%);其它試驗研究病例共計39例佔.7%)。水產動物病例種類分析結果顯示養殖淡水魚佔15.4%;養殖海水魚佔66%;觀賞魚佔6.2%;貝類佔0.3%;兩棲類佔4.3%;甲殼類佔6.5%;其他未知魚種隻病例佔1.3%。疾病診斷分析結果,在細菌性疾病共檢出252例(佔37.3%),其中以94株鏈球菌(Streptococcus iniae)為最多、23例(佔9.1%)努卡氏菌(Nocardiaseriolae)次之,以上兩種細菌為最常見且廣泛發生於海水及淡水魚種。而 VibrioSpp 共計25例(佔9.9%)且好發於夏天;Aeromonas hydrophila計16例(佔6.3%),且好發於夏天;Photbacterium damselae subsp. piscicida 計12例(佔4.7%) 並好發於冬天。病毒性疾病共計診出327例,其中虹彩病毒感染症(Iridovirusinfection)160例(佔49%)、病毒神經壞死病毒感染症(Virus nervous necrosis virus)為114例(佔36.2%)、虹彩病毒及病毒神經壞死病毒合併感染共計42例(佔13%)、4 例淋巴囊腫症、5 例錦鯉?疹病毒感染症、2 例螃蟹之Birnavirus-like感染症; 8 例寄生蟲感染性疾病及 1 例水黴病及其他病因6例等共計 7 例。由以上結果顯示目前養殖魚類重要病毒性疾病主要以虹彩病毒感染症及病毒神經壞死感染症為主,細菌性疾病以鏈球菌、奴卡氏菌及弧菌為主,本結果可提供作為疫苗研發或防疫政策參考等所需,以解決養殖業者對水產疾病發生之困擾。
英文摘要:
Animal Health Research Institute, Couni of Agriculture Eight hundred twenty cases of aquatic animal speciments were collected for diagnosis and monitoring program from January to December 2004 in Taiwan.Diagnosis of bacterial and viral diseases were carried out utilizing the techniques of viral isolation, PCR methods, API kits and analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Analysis of case sources revealed that 82% were from private fish farms, 6.2% from local Livestock Diseases Control Centers and university, 6.9% from quarantine bureaus and 4.7% from research programs. The percentage distribution of species in collected specimens include 15.4% of freshwater fish (mainly Percidae spp), 66% of seawater fish (maninly Epinephlus spp, Cobia, Lutjanidae spp), 6.2% of pet fish(mainly koi), 6.5% of crustacean, 4.3% of amphibians, 0.3% of shellfish and others 1.3% from the total cases. Out of 252 cases of bacterial infections, both Streptococcus iniae (37.3%) and Nocardia seriolae (9.1%) infection were commonly found in freshwater and seawater fish. Vibrio spp infection(9.9%) usually occurred in summer, whereas Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (4.7%) did in winter. A total of 327 cases of viral infection were diagnosed, which is composed of Iridovirus infection (49 %), Virus nervous necrosis virus infection (36.2%), mixed infecton of above both virus (13%), Lymphocystivirus infection (4 cases), Koi herpesvirus infection (5 cases), birnavirus-like virus infection in crab (2 cases).Besides, 8 cases of parasitic infection, 1 case of fungal infection and 6 cases of other disease contributed to the total cases. The above results showed the major viral diseases in cultured fish are caused by Iridovirus and Virus nervous necrosis virus and the major bacterial diseases are caused by Streptococcus iniae, Nocardis seriolae, Vibrio spp infection. The above data of disease prevalence can provide reference for vaccine development and prevention policy, also resolving diseases problem for fish farmers.
備註:
年份:西元 2004 年
期別:第 40 期
詳細內容:
國內既有之水產動物疾病,隨著飼養的環境及氣候溫度之劇烈變化,疾病之發生率亦隨之增加,我國水產養殖環境大多為密集式飼養,更亦因緊迫等因素造成疾病發生率增高,且我國加入WTO後,國際間水產品自由輸入我國,同時增加海外水產動物傳染病境外移入之機會,因此水產動物疾病之診斷、防治與監測急需解決。本試驗利用本所已開發出部分魚類之細胞株與 PCR 技術,進行魚類病毒性疾病之分離與研究;而細菌性疾病則於培養分離後,進行 API 生化測定或16S rRNA 基因選殖定序等技術來檢診。再依據疾病發生之概況進行分析探討,以瞭解我國水產動物疾病疫情發生情形並提供疫苗研發或防疫政策等參考所需,目的乃為預防水產動物疾病發生減少養殖戶損失並提昇養殖產業之國際競爭力。
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附件名稱:
養殖魚類疾病之檢診服務及監測
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