篇名:
台灣地區牛流行熱病毒感染流行病學Epidemiology of bovine ephemeral fever virus infection in Taiwan
作者:
廖永剛;稻葉右二;黎南榮;張秋燕;李永蓮;劉培柏
中文摘要:
民國85年8月間,本省乳牛群顯現急性發燒與呼吸困難的流行熱病症。經統計,共有9個縣(市),516戶酪農之14,933頭乳牛發病,發生率佔當時乳牛總數110,247的13.6%。在發病牛中有1685頭(11.3%)因為發病死亡或被淘汰。在該疫情期間,我們由發病牛樣品共分離出8株牛流行熱病毒,以及一株茨城病病毒。發現茨城病病毒的牛隻病程是較其他發病牛長,且有呼吸困難及離群現象;該病牛早期呈流行熱發熱及喘的症狀,但沒有喉頭麻痺症狀。分離之流行熱病毒經以流行熱不活化疫苗之免疫血清,進行交叉中和試驗,結果新分離株皆可為免疫血清中和,顯示流行熱不活化疫苗刺激產生的抗體仍可保護牛隻耐過野外病毒的攻擊。由疫情調查發現,因為近年來沒有疫情發生,農民皆疏於預防接種。故發生流行熱的疫情是因為牛群抗體低弱,又逢七月間颱風過後,媒介蚊蟲孽生,致牛流行熱病毒再流行。以分離病毒經試驗證實,該次流行的病毒不是澳洲報告之 Kimberley 或 Berimah 病毒。在牛流行熱防疫檢討,現階段仍要求農民能每年定期實施疫苗接種,以確保牛隻安全。
英文摘要:
Sick animals with excessive nasal discharges and protruding tongue as a result of dyspnea were observed in the August of 1996. Eight strains of BEF virus were isolated from heparinized blood samples of the affected cattle. Most of the affected cattle were difficult to be treated and had a poor prognosis. A total of 516 farms in the 9 districts of Taiwan were affected in 1996. Among a population of 110,247 dairy cattle, 14,993 (13.6%) cattle were found to be clinically ill. During the epidemic, 1,685 (11.3%) affected cattle were culled or dead after the onset of the disease. Furthermore, a strain of Ibaraki virus was isolated from the blood sample of a sick cattle that showed pyrexia, labored respiration and solitary behavior in the affected farm. The cattle with Ibaraki virus infection had typical symptoms of BEF at the early stage of the disease, but neither stomatitis nor pharyngoesophageal paralysis was observed at the onset of the disease. The outbreak was presumably brought about by the low level or non-immune status of a large cattle population due to the negligence of BEF vaccination. Therefore, the disease easily recurred in Taiwan after a typhoon episode in the August of 1996, which resulted in the proliferation of biting midges in the field. No difference in the antigenicity was found between the new and the previous isolates of BEF virus. As analyzed by cross neutralization test, the isolated BEF viruses showed no relationship to the Kimberley and Berrimah viruses that were isolated from the blood of cattle and related to BEF virus in Australia. We have tried to advise farmers that they must vaccinate their cattle annually to prevent BEF outbreak in the future.
備註:
年份:西元 1999 年
期別:第 35 期
詳細內容:
Bovine ephemeral faver (BEF) is a clinical disease of cattle. Outbreaks of BEF have been reported in South Africa, Kenya, India, Australia and Japan since early 1900s (Burgess 1971, Davis et al. 1975, Inaba 1968, Morgan and Murray 1969, Murray 1970, Standfast et al. 1976). Ephemeral fever, three-day-sickness, stiff sickness, bovine epizootic fever and bovine influenza have been used to name this viral disease in the different countries at different times (Chiu 1986, Chiu and Lu 1986, Lin and Inoue 1969, St. George 1981). BEF could occur without noticeable clinical signs, but the features of the clinical disease were primarily the same as described in various countries, such as South Africa, Australia, Japan (Inaba1968). High fever, nasal discharges, salivation and lameness appear to the principal features of this disease (Snowdon 1970, St.George1985, Timoney et al. 1988, Tzipori 1975). BEF producted its main impact by disrupting the husbandry of beef cattle and dairy cows. It usually caused the bulls to be temporarily infertile (Burgess and Genoweth 1975). During fever, milk production almost ceased and the milk quality was poor. Lactation usually resumed on recovery, but the loss of milk production in a natural epizootic can be as high as 12%of the lactation in dairy cows (Davis et al. 1984). Under experimental conditions, the short-term milk loss was 50%. The loss of body weight during illness was apparent, but usually was not quantified
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附件名稱:
牛流行熱病毒感染流行病學
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