篇名:
臺灣2005 年傳播性海綿狀腦病與狂犬病監測報告Surveillance and monitoring on transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and rabies in Taiwan in 2005
作者:
李淑慧;張國慧;蔡國榮;張仁杰;洪晢惇
中文摘要:
2005 年共監測571 例24 月齡以上牛腦,其中535 例係屠宰場逢機採樣檢體、2例結核病撲殺牛隻、6例加拿大進口追蹤列管臨床上呈衰弱或死亡牛隻、1例疑似吞食異物致死病例、1例查緝私宰牛隻、1例下痢牛隻及25例高齡淘汰乳牛,檢驗結果牛海綿狀腦病皆為陰性。另監測21 頭24 月齡以上羊腦,檢體取自衰弱淘汰乳羊,檢驗結果傳播性海綿狀腦病為陰性。此外應用酵素連結免疫吸附法檢測2,772件犬隻血清中狂犬病抗體,其中家犬佔1,304件,陽性率為57.1%,流浪犬佔1,451 件,陽性率為26.6%,顯示國內犬隻狂犬病預防注射率仍有提高之空間。另應用組織病理學、直接免疫螢光標示抗體檢查法及反轉錄聚合?鏈反應,檢測118例犬腦組織,包括2例犬瘟熱病例、1例疑似麻醉過量病例、23例走私犬及92例流浪犬,結果皆未檢測出狂犬病抗原及特徵性病變。綜合前述監測結果,台灣至今仍為傳播性海綿狀腦病及狂犬病之非疫區。 .
英文摘要:
In our laboratory, the methods of histopathology, immunohistochemistry, Western immunoblot assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques have been applied for the continuous surveillance of BSE. For this surveillance, we collected a total of 571 brains specimens randomly, age of over 24-month-old cattle from the abattoirs, M.tuberculosis-contaminated farms, and from the culling old cattle in Taiwan in 2005. On the cattle farm, cattle with central nervous signs or other symptoms were included. Additionally, 21 brains specimen from cullied old goat were examined for TSE. All the specimens were negative. The results indicate free status of TSE in Taiwan. BSE and TSE aside, we also monitored rabies in 2005. A total of 2,772 sera samples including 1,304 samples from domestic dogs and 1,451 samples from stray dogs were examined for rabies by the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results show that the sero-positive rate of domestic and stray dogs were 57.1% (745/1,304) and 26.6% (386/1,451), respectively. The data indicate that even though the vaccine against rabies is readily available, it is not popular as desired. Besides those techniques described above, methods of histopathological observation, direct immunofluorescent antibody and immunohistochemistry were also applied to detect rabies antigens and typical lesions. A total of 118 brain specimens including 23 smuggled dogs, 92 stray dogs, and others were examined. All the specimens were negative indicating free status of rabies in Taiwan.
備註:
年份:西元 2006 年
期別: 第 41 期
詳細內容:
傳播性海綿狀腦病(transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, TSE)係造成感染動物的腦組織出現類似海綿狀變性病變的疾病,又稱普里昂疾病(prion disease),這類疾病包括人的庫賈氏症(Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, CJD)、牛海綿狀腦病(bovine spongiform encepahopathy, BSE,俗稱狂牛病)、搔癢症、傳播性貂腦病、鹿與麋鹿的慢性消耗病(或狂鹿症)以及貓科動物海綿狀腦病。各種傳播性海綿狀腦病的致病機序並不完全相同,真正的致病原因目前尚未完全清楚,目前認定致病原為「變性普里昂蛋白質」[20],會在患病動物或人類腦組織不正常聚集,造成腦組織病變,由於致病過程相當緩慢,所以一般需要經過數年的潛伏期才會發病。1986年BSE 首先於英國被發現,目前歐洲大多數的國家、日本、加拿大及美國等陸續發現本病而成為疫區。BSE 的發生除對畜牧產業帶來衝擊外,嚴重影響動物及畜產品出口貿易,1996 年發現的人類新變異型庫賈氏症(new variant CJD)更被認為可能和曾經食入感染牛海綿狀腦病的牛製品有關[7,11],其在人畜共通傳染病防治上的重要性,不言可喻。  狂犬病是古老且重要的人畜共通的疾病,幾乎所有溫血動物都可感染,主要經咬傷後自傷口感染,病毒進入體內經過長短不一的潛伏期後,最後到達中樞神經,引起嚴重的神經傷害,繼而造成肌肉麻痺、昏迷和死亡。本病病原為桿狀病毒科(Rhabdoviridae)之Lyssavirus 病毒屬。病毒顆粒大小為75 ×180nm,形如砲彈狀,具外膜,病毒核酸屬於線狀單股RNA病毒。犬隻的潛伏期平均為3至8 週,發病後約5至7 天死亡,臨床症狀可分為前驅期、狂躁期及麻痺期;人類主要經由帶毒動物或家畜咬傷而感染,發病時會有焦慮、頭痛、發燒、咬傷部位有異樣感,然後會出現麻痺及飲水時有吞嚥困難的現象,見到水即誘發咽喉部肌肉之痙攣,即所謂恐水現象,且併有精神錯亂及抽搐之情形,最後因呼吸麻痺而導致死亡。本病為古老之疾病,幾乎分佈於全世界。台灣早年亦有本病發生,經各方努力後目前為亞洲地區極少數非疫區國家之一。據2001 年世界衛生組織的資料,估計全世界每年約有四萬至七萬人死於本病,以亞洲及非洲國家發生較多[26]。
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附件名稱:
2005年傳播性海綿狀腦病
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